Their spacing increases away from the standard parallels. For instance, the northern border of Colorado is at 41°N while the southern border is at 37°N. This is because the Southern Hemisphere has significantly more ocean and much less land; water heats up and cools down more slowly than land. The equatoris the imaginary primary reference line drawn around the earth halfway between the north and south poles. Southern hemisphere definition is - the part of the earth that lies south of the equator. Both Chile and Australia share, for example, unique beech species or Nothofagus, and New Zealand has members of the closely related genera Lophozonia and Fuscospora. The positions of the Tropical and Polar Circles are not fixed because the axial tilt changes slowly – a complex motion determined by the superimposition of many different cycles (some of which are described below) with short to very long periods. In the northern hemisphere, air deflects to the right. Everything north of the equator is known as the Northern Hemisphere and everything south of the equator is known as the Southern Hemisphere. The equator is the circle that is equidistant from the North Pole and South Pole. There are 89 integral (whole degree) circles of latitude between the Equator and the poles in each hemisphere, but these can be divided into more precise measurements of latitude, and are often represented as a decimal degree (e.g. At the winter solstice in the Northern Hemisphere, around December 21, … If you subtract your latitude from 90 degrees, you’ll be able to judge how much of opposite hemisphere you may observe. Heraklious of Byzantium. Using Crux and Centaurus to find the Southern Celestial Pole (note, lines appear parallel because the star map projection is flattened) - click to embiggen 2.3 Southern Hemisphere. There are five major circles of latitude, listed below from north to south. The Southern Hemisphere is the half of the Earth south of the Equator, and it contains at least part of five continents, four oceans, and several islands. 3. South American countries in the Northern Hemisphere are most of Colombia, Venezuela, Guyana, Suriname and French Guiana. How many lines of latitude are there in the Northern and Southern Hemisphere? The Standard Meridian of India is _____. About how many hours of daylight does Havana, Cuba receive around December 21? A number of sub-national and international borders were intended to be defined by, or are approximated by, parallels. The oldest continuously inhabited city in the Southern Hemisphere is Bogor, in western Java, which was founded in 669 CE. Owing to the tilt of Earth's rotation relative to the Sun and the ecliptic plane, summer is from December to February (inclusive) and winter is from June to August (inclusive). Circles of latitude are unlike circles of longitude, which are all great circles with the centre of Earth in the middle, as the circles of latitude get smaller as the distance from the Equator increases. The answer to how many parallels of latitude are there on the northern hemisphere is 90. 0 … The Earth's axis of rotation tilts about 23.5 degrees, relative to the plane of Earth's orbit around the Sun.As the Earth orbits the Sun, this creates the 47° declination difference between the solstice sun paths, as well as the hemisphere-specific difference between summer and winter. The conflicting claims led to the, In Canada, part of the border between Quebec and, In the United States, part of the border between, In the US, part of the border between Wyoming and Utah, the border between Wyoming and, In the US, the border between Nebraska and, In the US, the southern border of Utah with the northern border of, In the US, a short section of the border between the, In the US, the southern border of Tennessee, which meets, In the US, the southern border of Arkansas, which meets the northern border of. The most populous country in the Southern Hemisphere is Indonesia, with 267 million people (roughly 30 million of whom live north of the Equator on the northern portions of the islands of Sumatra, Borneo, and Sulawesi, as well as the most of North Maluku, while the rest of the population lives in the Southern Hemisphere). A Greco-Roman text written between 1 and 100 CE, the Periplus of the Erythraean Sea, mentioned the island of Menuthias (Ancient Greek: Μενουθιάς) as a trading port on the east African coast, which is probably the small island of Unguja on which Zanzibar is located. In the Southern Hemisphere, the sun passes from east to west through the north, although north of the Tropic of Capricorn the mean sun can be directly overhead or due north at midday. Sun-cast shadows turn anticlockwise throughout the day and sundials have the hours increasing in the anticlockwise direction. 5. Data from the Southern Hemisphere shows sharp drops in influenza cases during the typical season. The values below are for 21 December 2020:. This, combined with clearer skies, makes for excellent viewing of the night sky from the Southern Hemisphere with brighter and more numerous stars. It’s a myth that the Coriolis effect determines the direction a toilet flushes like on the Simpsons. Parallels make convenient borders in the northern hemisphere because astronomic latitude can be roughly measured (to within a few tens of meters) by sighting the North Star. A location's position along a circle of latitude is given by its longitude. In the Southern Hemisphere, the climate and hydro-graphic conditions are controlled principally by the presence of a major high-pressure area, the centre of which is located at about 28°S and 13°W in July. Short-term fluctuations over a matter of days do not directly affect the location of the extreme latitudes at which the sun may appear directly overhead, or at which 24-hour day or night is possible, except when they actually occur at the time of the solstices. The Equator is the longest circle of latitude and is the only circle of latitude which also is a great circle. Its surface is 80.9% water, compared with 60.7% water in the case of the Northern Hemisphere, and it contains 32.7% of Earth's land. However, of these continents, only Australia and Antarctica are completely within the Southern Hemisphere. (ii) the Southern Hemisphere; Grid is a network of (i) parallels of latitudes and meridians of longitudes; Question: Fill in the blanks. The other pole projects to infinity and cannot be shown.  Portuguese is the most spoken language in the Southern Hemisphere, with over 230 million speakers in eight countries. In the Northern Hemisphere, there is a star, Polaris, that falls almost exactly at that point. Part of South America and more than half of Africa, for example, are north of the equator, even though these continents are frequently thought of as being in the Southern Hemisphere. The Southern Hemisphere is the southern portion or half of the Earth.  There are many smaller terms, resulting in varying daily shifts of some metres in any direction. Two short sections of the border between Democratic Republic of the Congo and Angola. 2. Answer Save. On an equirectangular projection, centered on the equator, the circles of latitude are horizontal, parallel, and equally spaced. Source(s): geographer. The southern temperate zone, a subsection of the Southern Hemisphere, is nearly all oceanic. Since (in the geodetic system) altitude and depth are determined by the normal to the Earth's surface, locations sharing the same latitude—but having different elevations (i.e., lying along this normal)—no longer lie within this plane. Among the most developed nations in the Southern Hemisphere is Australia, with a nominal GDP per capita of USD 51,885 and a Human Development Index (HDI) of 0.944, the eighth-highest in the world as of the 2020 report. Rather, they cause a theoretical shifting of the parallels, that would occur if the given axis tilt were maintained throughout the year. The latitude of the polar circles is equal to 90° less the Earth's axial tilt. Fig. Naval Observatory - mean obliquity of the ecliptic, https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Circle_of_latitude&oldid=995396827, Short description is different from Wikidata, Articles needing additional references from April 2012, All articles needing additional references, Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License, The border between 19th century Russian territories to the north and conflicting American and British land claims in western North America. It shows constellations you can see from mid-southern latitudes such as Sydney, Cape Town or Wellington in mid-month, at 10pm local time. The equator, the imaginary line that divides the planet into a northern and southern hemisphere, represents 0°. In the Southern Hemisphere, there is nothing to mark the southern celestial pole. The largest metropolitan areas in the Southern Hemisphere are Jakarta (33 million people), São Paulo (22 million), Buenos Aires, Kinshasa (16 million each), Rio de Janeiro (12 million), Johannesburg (11 million), Lima (10 million), Santiago (7 million), Sydney and Melbourne (5 million each). 4 Answers. The Earth's axial tilt has additional shorter-term variations due to nutation, of which the main term, with a period of 18.6 years, has an amplitude of 9.2" (corresponding to almost 300 metres north and south). The position of the Equator is fixed (90 degrees from Earth's axis of rotation) but the latitudes of the other circles depend on the tilt of this axis relative to the plane of Earth's orbit, and so are not perfectly fixed. Important financial and commercial centers in the Southern Hemisphere include São Paulo, where the B3 (stock exchange) is headquartered, along with Sydney, home to the Australian Securities Exchange, Jakarta, seat of the Indonesia Stock Exchange, Johannesburg, home to the Johannesburg Stock Exchange, and Buenos Aires, headquarters of the Buenos Aires Stock Exchange, the oldest stock market in the Southern Hemisphere.  The differences are also attributed to oceanic heat transfer and differing extents of greenhouse trapping.. On other cylindrical and pseudocylindrical projections, the circles of latitude are horizontal and parallel, but may be spaced unevenly to give the map useful characteristics. ", National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, "90% Of People Live In The Northern Hemisphere - Business Insider", "Potencial Económico da Língua Portuguesa", List of countries where Arabic is an official language, Lower Gangetic Plains moist deciduous forests, Northwestern Himalayan alpine shrub and meadows, Trans-Mexican Volcanic Belt pine–oak forests, https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Southern_Hemisphere&oldid=995382485, Short description is different from Wikidata, Articles with unsourced statements from October 2020, Wikipedia articles with WorldCat-VIAF identifiers, Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License, This page was last edited on 20 December 2020, at 18:59. Southern Hemisphere climates tend to be slightly milder than those at similar latitudes in the Northern Hemisphere, except in the Antarctic which is colder than the Arctic. There has been much speculation that the low confirmed incidence of COVID-19 infections in Africa and the rest of the southern hemisphere may be because the virus is vulnerable to heat and sun, writes MedicalBrief.And in the northern hemisphere, hopes are being expressed that the coming of summer will offer respite from infections. In the US, part of the border between New Mexico and Texas. The least developed nations in the Southern Hemisphere cluster in Africa and Oceania, with Mozambique and Burundi at the lowest ends of the HDI, at 0.456 (number 181 in the world) and 0.433 (number 185 in the world), respectively. The 0° Meridian is also known as _____. In Australia, much of the border between Queensland and, In Argentina, the border between Chubut Province and, This page was last edited on 20 December 2020, at 20:33. About how many hours of daylight does Boulder, Colorado receive around June 21? The latitude of the circle is approximately the angle between the Equator and the circle, with the angle's vertex at Earth's centre. In the year 2000 AD the mean value of the tilt was about 23° 26′ 21″. Arcs of circles of latitude are sometimes used as boundaries between countries or regions where distinctive natural borders are lacking (such as in deserts), or when an artificial border is drawn as a "line on a map", which was made in massive scale during the 1884 Berlin Conference, regarding huge parts of the African continent. The latitude of the tropical circles is equal to the Earth's axial tilt. The Tropic of Capricorn is located at _____. Lines of latitude start at 0 degrees at the equator and end a 90 degrees at the North and South Poles. The oldest monumental civilizations in the Southern Hemisphere are the Norte Chico civilization and Casma–Sechin culture from the northern coast of Peru. In the Southern Hemisphere the equinox occurs on September 22 or 23, when the Sun moves south across the celestial equator. Any circle drawn around the Earth divides it into two equal halves called hemispheres. 34.637°N) or with minutes and seconds (e.g. The North Pole, of course, is in the Northern Hemisphere, while the South Pole is at the most southerly part of the Southern Hemisphere. Similarly, the Antarctic Circle marks the northernmost latitude in the Southern Hemisphere at which the sun can remain continuously above or below the horizon for 24 hours (at the December and June Solstices respectively). Ace. Tropic of Capricorn, latitude about 23 degrees 27 minutes south of the terrestrial Equator. The Tropic of Cancer and Tropic of Capricorn mark the northernmost and southernmost latitudes at which the sun may be seen directly overhead (at the June solstice and December solstice respectively). Here is a view of the night sky for December 2020. The Southern Hemisphere is the half of Earth that is south of the Equator. Elevation has an effect on a location with respect to the plane formed by a circle of latitude. However, some evidence shows that Zanzibar, an ancient port with around 200,000 inhabitants on the coast of Tanzania, may be older than Bogor. 90° north is … This line of latitude is the southern boundary of the area referred to as the tropics. Circles of latitude are often called parallels because they are parallel to each other; that is, planes that contain any of these circles never intersect each other. Night sky map – southern hemisphere. The Southern Hemisphere is the half of Earth that is south of the Equator. It contains all or parts of five continents (Antarctica, Australia, about 90% of South America, one third of Africa, and several islands off the continental mainland of Asia), four oceans (Indian, South Atlantic, Southern, and South Pacific) and most of the Pacific Islands in Oceania. The Arctic Circle is the southernmost latitude in the Northern Hemisphere at which the sun can remain continuously above or below the horizon for 24 hours (at the June and December solstices respectively). To some Northern Hemisphere residents, many southern localities are thought to be in the Southern Hemisphere when they are actually located north of the equator. The five continents located in the Southern Hemisphere are Antarctica, Africa, Australia, South America, and Asia. Parallels refer to the Lines of latitude. More than 800 million humans live in the Southern Hemisphere, representing around 10–12% of the total global human population of 7.3 billion. Latitude can simply be termed as an angle on the surface of earth that together with longitude gives coordinate of a place. The Sun follows a right-to-left trajectory through the northern sky unlike the left-to-right motion of the Sun when seen from the Northern Hemisphere as it passes through the southern sky. the Equator (0° N) the Tropic of Capricorn (Sagittarius) (23° 26′ 22″ S) the Antarctic Circle (66° 33′ 38″ S)4. These circles of latitude, excluding the Equator, mark the divisions between the five principal geographical zones. North American nations and states have also mostly been created by straight lines, which are often parts of circles of latitudes. A circle of latitude is perpendicular to all meridians.. Movement of the Tropical and Polar Circles, Learn how and when to remove this template message, International Terrestrial Reference System, Spatial Reference System Identifier (SRID), "Maritime Delimitation between Nicaragua and Honduras in the Caribbean Sea (Nicaragua v. Honduras)", U.S. 4. The most northern parts of Brazil and Ecuador are also in the Northern Hemisphere. The degrees increase in either direction from this marker. In January, a major low-pressure is centred over central equatorial Africa, but moves far to the northeast by July. 1.9. The Southern Hemisphere encapsulates all of Antarctica, the south of Asia, approximately one-third of Africa, all of Australia and approximately 90 percent of South America (below the mouth of the Amazon River). As a result, (approximately, and on average) the Tropical Circles are drifting towards the equator (and the Polar Circles towards the poles) by 15 metres per year, and the area of the Tropics is decreasing by 1,100 square kilometres (420 sq mi) per year. The distance between the … It divides the Earth into the Northern Hemisphere and the Southern Hemisphere. The most widespread religions in the Southern Hemisphere are Christianity in South America, Southern Africa, Australia and Oceania, followed by Islam in most of the islands of Indonesia and in parts of southeastern Africa, and Hinduism, which is mostly concentrated on and around the islands of Bali, Mauritius and Lombok. December 2020 All-sky astronomical map. If the Earth were "upright" (its axis at right angles to the orbital plane) there would be no Arctic, Antarctic, or Tropical circles: at the poles the sun would always circle along the horizon, and at the equator the sun would always rise due east, pass directly overhead, and set due west. Objects such as Pluto with tilt angles greater than 45 degrees will have the tropic circles closer to the poles and the polar circles closer to the equator. A classic example is a comparison between the United States … This is why they are also called parallels. The earth is divided into hemispheres by the equator.Image by Byron InouyeThe earth rotates daily about its axis. But in the southern hemisphere, air veers to the left. Further, the northern hemisphere accounts for 98% of the total number of deaths reported while the southern barely 2% (1,765 of 88,640). On most non-cylindrical and non-pseudocylindrical projections, the circles of latitude are neither straight nor parallel. Lines of latitude are called parallels and in total there are 180 degrees of latitude. Keeping in mind that there is overlap, The Southern Hemisphere contains all or part of five continents.These include Antarctica, a small part of Asia (some islands off the mainland), all of Australia/Oceania, one-third of Africa, and most of South America (90 percent). It begins at the equator at 0 degrees latitude and continues south into higher latitudes until it reaches 90 degrees south, the South Pole in the middle of Antarctica. This line marks the point farthest to the south at which the sun is hanging directly upward at noon. A circle of latitude is perpendicular to all meridians. This is usually interpreted very similarly to the conjunction. On a map, the circles of latitude may or may not be parallel, and their spacing may vary, depending on which projection is used to map the surface of the Earth onto a plane. About how many hours of daylight does Sydney, Australia receive on March 21? Sun paths at any latitude and any time of the year can be determined from basic geometry. The eucalyptus is native to Australia but is now also planted in Southern Africa and Latin America for pulp production, and increasingly, biofuel uses. There are a total of 45 Constellations in the Southern Celestial Hemisphere. Mostly been created by straight lines, which was founded in 669 CE sub-national and international borders were intended be! 'S axis the Equator is at 37°N around December 21 with a period of 41,000 years air! 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